Command and Rudder

The Commands(Orders) of flight(theft) of flight(theft) of planes consist, as the case may be, of a handle of a steering wheel or of a flight stick. This device relieves the efforts of the pilot(driver) towards the steerings. Between both, the efforts are passed on or directly, by the intermediaire of steel cables or pulleys or with the aid of tierods in alloys of aluminum and dismissals of angle. On the heavier planes, the efforts on the steerings are such as the steerings are moved by hydraulic jacks, in that case, one or several hydraulic systems produce and pass on the pressure necessary for jacks to activate(sue) the steerings. A hydraulic system, of uyn called reservoir covers, the role of which is to absober jolts due to the variations of pressure resulting from the use of constraints, from filters, from circuit by-pass anti-sealing, of drawers selecteur hydraulic directing the pressionvers jacks, as well as of lids of overpressure...


A. Empennage

The empennage, situated on the back part(party) of the fuselage, in for role to assure(insure) the stability (left basic salary) and the handiness (left motive(mobile)) the plane. It is advisable to distinguish: - the vertical plan consisted of a part(party) fixes - the drift and of a mobile part(party) - rudders - the horizontal plan consisted of the stabilizer with fixed or variable wedging as well as the elevators.

The rudder is articulated behind the drift and assures(insures) the movements of the plane.

Stabilizer: he assures(insures) the centring of the plane (horizontal stability in flight(theft)). His(her,its) position in height varies of a type(chap) of plane in the other one.

We find of this more or less high fixed fact of stabilizers on the fuselage, or on the drift.

Elevators: they assure(insure) the movements of the plane around the axis of reeling (pricked or made rear(pricked or zoomed)) They are articulated in the back part(party) of the stabilizer.


  - > since A320, the empennage does not use more than advanced composites, in fibers of glass and carbon. The side panels, which are the rooms(parts,plays) of bigger dimension have a structure sandwich with nest of bee.

This structure offers: a good resistance in the strengths and at the moments, a big rigidity in flexion, a low(weak) mass, an excellent holding(dress) in fatigue, a good behaviour in the fatigue due to the sound vibrations, a resistance after surface treatment in the conditions of environment and in the hydraulic fluid, a moderate cost of production compared with the strengthened monolithic rooms(parts,plays). The inconveniences of the structure nest of bee are a sensibility in the shocks and in the damage by striking by lightning and the difficulty of assembly with the other elements.


B. Ailerons

They are mobile surfaces situated at the edge of flight(leak) of the wing, generally towards the extremities of the buckle to be able to work with the arm of the longest possible control lever. Their function(office) is to make revolve the plane around the axis of roll by making vary differently the portance of both wings. In When a plane transfers(turns,fires), he(it) bows(is defeated) inward of the bend, for it, the ailerons of the wing outside the bend fall to increase the portance and raise(find) the wing, whereas the ailerons of the internal wing in the bend get up to decrease the portance and lower the wing.


- Ailerons act by variation of the curvature of the profile.

- So, their action(share) is hyper sustentatrice if they are aimed(held up,antagonized) downward and hypo sustentatrice if they are aimed(held up,antagonized) upward.

So, both ailerons of a wing are conjugated, when the one if lowers the other one rises, so that the portance of a half-wing increases whereas the portance of the other half-wing decreases, what provokes then a moment which makes tilt the plane in the wished sense(direction).

- The movement of ailerons is thus differential: when the one gets up the other one falls and mutually.

- So, the aileron is raised(found) towards(as for) the slope.



- The opposite movement of both ailerons pulls(entails) the slope of the plane



C. Rudder

The rudder or the rudder is the mobile part(party) implanted on the also called vertical empennage divert(derive).

- We name(appoint) axis of lace the imaginary axis which crosses the plane from top to bottom, perpendicularly in the fuselage. The rotation around this axis is called " the lace ".

- It is the movement of lace that allows, to direct the nose of the plane to the right or to the left and to make transfer(fire) the device by associating it a movement of roll (bound(connected) to the action(share) of ailerons).

- The lace can be also used in case of breakdown by an engine of wing. The pilot(driver) provokes the lace through the palonnier which directs the rudder, mobile surface implanted on the vertical empennage or divert(derive).

- As for the other steerings, the rudder is going to provoke the curvature of the profile of the drift, so generating an aerodynamic strength which creates a moment with regard to the axis of lace.

- The rudder does not serve to manage the device towards a wished direction(management) (it is the role of ailerons), but she allows to maintain a symmetry of the plane in the relative wind. The flow of the nets of air(sight) is so symmetrically made on both sides of the fuselage.

To understand better …

Axis of roll - > ailerons

Axis of reeling - >tails

Axis of lace - > rudder

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